But why do these patches of skin wrinkle? Some think that this is a biochemical reaction, an osmotic process in which water yanks a handful of compounds out of the skin, leaving an expanse of parched, pruney skin in their place.
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Wrinkled fingers, then, are signs of an intact nervous system. Indeed, the wrinkling response has been suggested as a means of determining whether the sympathetic nervous system is functional in patients that are otherwise unresponsive.
The wrinkle effect usually occurs after five minutes or so Credit: Getty Images. On all of this, the scientific community has consensus.
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But whether and how the wet-wrinkling response may have evolved, and if it even represents an adaptation in the first place, remains a contentious debate. Consider tyre treads. In dry conditions, smooth tyres can best maintain their grip on the asphalt, which explains why race cars typically have smooth, featureless tires. But when driving in rain, treads are far safer. Wrinkled fingers, then, could be optimally designed for gripping in both wet and dry conditions.
Anatomy of the hand
But researchers can look for hints, tell-tale clues that indicate that a feature may indeed have evolved as an adaptation. In , Changizi and his colleagues found evidence that wrinkled fingers indeed act as rain treads, channelling water away from the fingers and toes during wet conditions, allowing primates — humans and macaques, to be specific — to maintain tighter grips. In other words, the wrinkles that result from exposure to water can be thought of as tiny, manual river drainage systems.
These same nerves also provide sensation feeling of the whole upper limb.
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The brachial plexus roots come out of the spinal column between the vertebrae. The roots are labeled C5, C6, C7, C8 for the cervical vertebrae and T1 for the first thoracic vertebra. Brachial plexus injuries range from mild stretch injuries that resolve naturally to complete root tears that result in an arm that does not feel and does not function. Brachial plexus injuries can be caused by motorcycle or car accidents when the neck and the shoulder are pushed in different directions. Infants can also sustain brachial plexus injuries during childbirth. Some information about each of the roots:.
The second level of the brachial plexus consists of three "trunks. As the three trunks continue toward the shoulder, they each divide into two nerves called an "anterior division" and a "posterior division. The third level of the brachial plexus is called "divisions. The divisions then reorganize to create three new nerves, called "cords.
The nerves in the fourth level of the brachial plexus are called "cords" and come from the "divisions" in level three. The three cords are named lateral, posterior, and medial based on their position in relationship to the brachial artery. Many important nerves come from the cords.
Some of these nerves produce motion around the shoulder.
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Others travel on to become the five main "branches" of the brachial plexus. The fifth and final level of the brachial plexus are the five nerves that feed the shoulder and arm called "branches. Tip 1: Start with the basics like "carpal tunnel. Tip 3: Avoid capitalization and conjunctions like "the," "and," "or," or "in. Tip 5: Punctuation can enhance your search as well.
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Use quotes "search term" to only include pages with the same words in the same order. But only use this if you are looking for an exact word or phrase, otherwise you may exclude helpful results. Place a question mark search term? For example, pa? Tip 6: We are always trying to improve our search, if you are having any trouble with search please refer to our survey here and we will use your comments to improve our search. You can also watch our search help video. Home Anatomy Nerves. Nerves Peripheral outside of the central nervous system nerves are tubes that are special in their ability to transmit electric impulses along their length and into or away from the central nervous system.
Musculocutaneous nerve The musculocutaneous nerve is formed from the C5, C6, and C7 nerve roots of the brachial plexus. Axillary nerve The axillary nerve is formed from the C5 and C6 nerve roots of the brachial plexus. Roots The brachial plexus is a group of nerves that control the muscles of the shoulder, arm, forearm and hand.
It travels into the brachial plexus and eventually becomes the nerves that feed muscles around the shoulder and chest. It also provides sensation to parts of the upper arm.
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C6 is the nerve "root" that exits the spinal cord above the sixth vertebra in the neck. It travels into the brachial plexus and eventually becomes the nerves that feed muscles that bend the elbow and straighten the wrist.
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