It is best for English--speaking students to avoid using the term "gerund" when studying the Romance languages like Spanish and Italian. The ending is inflected like a regular adjective:.
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Note that the past participle agrees in both gender and number with the noun it modifies in the absolute construction. It can also be used to give impersonal commands the type found on public signs, etc. The polite form "Lei" plural "Loro" is more commonly used in conversation it does not have to be capitalized ; to use it is to "dare del Lei": "Vorrebbe Lei venire con me?
The polite form of address uses third person verb forms, even though the voice is actually second person direct address. This gives a sense of formality and respectful distance to the conversation: "Dove abita lei? Vado a giocare a calcio. I go to play soccer. Impariamo a parlare in italiano. We learn to speak Italian. Sono venuti a trovarmi.
They came to see me. The following verbs require the preposition di when followed by an infinitive. I need a coffee. Ho finito di mangiare alle otto. I finished eating at Tentiamo di riparare l'aspirapolvere. We're trying to fix the vacuum cleaner. Interrogative pronouns include the following: Top of Page Che?
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Che cosa? Che cosa vuole? Interrogative adverbs include the following: Top of Page Come? The predicate always contains a verb. In the simple sentence: Il re ama la regina. Predicate adjectives and nouns have the same case as the noun or pronoun they inform us about. Regular forms are given in parentheses. He slipped and fell on the floor.
E joins two verbs. Si muoveva velocemente ma silenziosamente. He moved quickly but quietly. Ma joins two adverbs. Possiamo andare attraverso il fiume o attraverso i boschi. We can go over the river or through the woods. O joins two adverbial phrases. She went home last night and found the windows broken. E joins two clauses. Entrambi Maria ed io andremo alla festa. Both Maria and I will go to the party. She not only gave all of us presents, but she also invited us to the party. Neither money nor power can make you happy.
Sia mio marito che io possiamo portarti a casa. Either my husband or I can drive you home. If three or more units are joined, commas separate them: Uomini, donne, e bambini sono benvenuti. Men, women, and children are welcome. She never saw him after he left the town.
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He got a ticket because he was speeding. Once you have washed the car, dry it very well. She became very ill, since she had her accident. Non va mai ai festini, a meno che sua moglie non vada con lui. He never goes to parties unless his wife comes with him. Aspetteremo dentro fino a che la smette di piovere.
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We will wait inside until the rain stops. The girl who borrowed the magazine, entered the room. Il negozio, nel quale ho comprato la rivista, era chiuso. The shop where I bought the magazine was closed. The verb is in the subjunctive mood instead, when a possible, uncertain, wished, feared or hypothetical situation is presented: Non sembra esserci nessuno di cui mi possa fidare. There seems to be nobody I can trust.
Anybody that knows the rules can play. The interrogative pronoun chi is actually a double pronoun, in that it always refers to people. Those who have already completed the assignment can leave the room. Che that is by far the most frequently used relative pronoun. Noun clauses have the same function that a noun, used as a subject or an object, has in a sentence. It is well known that the best wine is made in France. I know that the best wine is made in France. My belief that the best wine is made in France is correct.
Lui si lamentava ai suoi amici che sua moglie era una cattiva cuoca. He complained to his friends that his wife was a bad cook. The verbs in the main clause usually express mental activities or states and speech:. Non ho notato se lui portava gli occhiali. I didn't notice whether he was wearing the glasses. Credo che sia una persona onesta. I believe that she is an honest person.
Non so se abbia intenzione di venire alla festa. I don t know whether or not she plans to come to the party. Subjunctive: Penso che ilvino migliore sia fatto in Francia. I think that the best wine is made in France. However, the noun clause takes the conditional if it expresses an unreal, uncertain or possible condition that is likely to happen in the future: Penso che dovresti farlo. I think that you should do that. To refer to the exact words said by a person, direct address discorso diretto is used: Gianni disse: "Ho comprato questa macchina.
The two verbs are independent. To refer to something that was said, without using the exact words said by that person, indirect or reported speech discorso indiretto is used: Gianni disse che aveva comprato quella macchina. Gianni said that he had bought that car.source link
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Disse is the principal verb on which the tense of the secondary verb depends aveva comprato. Indirect address is the union of two or more actions, two or more verbs -- one that is principal and the others are secondary or dependent. The principal verb determines the tenses and moods of the dependent verbs. Quando piove, non mi piace guidare. When it rains, I don't like to drive.